In 1991, marketing and psychological expert Ernest Dichter coined the name “Focus Group.” The term described meetings held with a limited group of participants with the objective of discussion. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is a research method in the social sciences, with a particular emphasis and application in the developmental program evaluation sphere (Doody, Slevin, & Taggart, 2013). Example: What do people with physical disability want from a tracking app? focus groups is suggested, which includes a consideration of when focus groups are preferred over one-to-one interviews. Each participant was asked to rate the priority of features as ‘Must have’, ‘Nice to have’ or ‘Not needed’. Focus Group Discussion. A focus group discussion involves gathering people from similar backgrounds or experiences together to discuss a specific topic of interest. The origin of the Focus Group was in sociology. You will need to decide how many focus groups to conduct. Preparing for the Focus Group Discussion Be sure to make the location and time of the FGD are clear to all participants. This would help to spark discussion and debate around the fitness tracking features users wanted and any unmet needs this group of users had. In focus group discussion participants are free to talk with other group Don’t include personal or financial information like your National Insurance number or credit card details. Rich Panel. 569 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<3B83D0A95621AE42866716BE01D871D5>]/Index[552 33]/Info 551 0 R/Length 93/Prev 821671/Root 553 0 R/Size 585/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream (2009) propose another useful structure for focus group analysis which is centred around a combination of different data analysis techniques – constant comparison method (which may involve comparing themes emerging in different focus groups), content analysis (e.g. Trust and rapport aside, there are other critical elements to a successful interview beside the guide. This is different from an interview study, where the focus is on individuals. The team used thematic analysis, but also focused their analysis to find out more about the features, functionality and appearance of the app that they wanted to develop. Depending on what you want to find out, you might want to recruit people who are similar to each other (homogeneous sampling), or recruit more varied users to get a wider understanding of their experience of your digital product (heterogeneous sampling). These were ranked according to their importance. Where there is one interviewer and one participant the interview it is called a ‘depth’, which is short for ‘in-depth interview’. Practical advice on how to run focus groups to refine your digital product. It will take only 2 minutes to fill in. h�b```�B��B ���� The two primary qualitative research techniques are individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions.The emphasis in this guide is on focus group discussions research. focus groups, in which a group discussion is facilitated by a “moderator” in order to elicit opinions and views about a topic. You’ve accepted all cookies. Choosing active people who had used fitness tracking meant that participants had a shared common experience. A discussion guideis used to structure the interview. 0 Avis and others (2015), ‘Lessons Learned from Using Focus Groups to Refine Digital Interventions’. You can change your cookie settings at any time. This is especially important if you are conducting focus groups around a sensitive topic. To find out user preferences, they chose to run focus groups with active people with physical disability who had used fitness tracking at least once before (homogeneous sampling). The team ran online focus groups exploring the views of an online intervention for breast cancer survivors. When conducting interviews or focus groups for your B2B research, whether capturing feedback on a product or carrying out buyer persona interviews, a discussion guide is a vital tool for ensuring you make the best use of your time and gain a greater level of insight. h�bbd```b``��5 ���d���En�ɣ`�Lʃe������@�Mi�l �d�� D��g�����ma`������� �~: With respect to process, a focus group ideally should consist of 10 to 12 people, although it certainly can be smaller or much larger. Garrido and others (2019), ‘Young People’s Response to Six Smartphone Apps for Anxiety and Depression: Focus Group Study’. Opening Remarks (2 Minutes) Thanks for coming today. Practical advice on how to run online focus groups. Focus groups. As an approach, the focus group offers qualitative researchers an efficient method of gathering the views of many participants at one time. The facilitator is the person guiding the discussion. Focus group interview is a type of qualitative research that helps clients understand consumers thoroughly. Carry out a focus group study if you want to understand people’s views and experiences. Focus groups are facilitated group discussions. This will dictate your sampling. An interview guide may be the skeleton of an IDI or focus group, but responses consist of everything else. Researchers wanted to find out how best to use prompts to promote engagement with an online intervention for Type 2 Diabetes. It is vital that the focus group be led by both a facilitator and a scribe; one … It is a form of qualitative research where questions are asked about their perceptions attitudes, beliefs, opinion or ideas. At the end of each group session, they compared their notes and compiled the list of features. You can use your model of how your product works to help you put together questions to guide the discussion during the focus group. This is different from an interview study, where the focus is on individuals. They used an experienced facilitator and an observer who was also taking notes. Focus groups use group dynamics to get shared experiences of people with similar characteristics. The objectives of qualitative research are to focus more on target audiences’ range of behavior and perceptions that drive it rather than facts and statistics that govern quantitative research. • It is a form of qualitative research where questions are asked about their perceptions attitudes, beliefs, opinion or ideas. The general characteristics of the Focus Group are people's involvement, a series of meetings, the homogeneity of participants with respect to research interests, the generation of qualitative data, and discussion focused on a topic, which is determined by the purpose of the research. %PDF-1.5 %���� Lally and others (2018), ‘Feasibility of Synchronous Online Focus Groups of Rural Breast Cancer Survivors on Web-Based Distress Self-Management’. How to use focus groups to evaluate your digital health product. In this blogpost, I’ll provide some resources for doing research using focus groups. The guide starts with an introduction to qualitative research (chapter 2). The results included the compiled list of 34 recommended features and functions of the app. If you anticipate some participants not showing up, invite 10-20% extra participants. Smaller groups can work too. We use cookies to collect information about how you use GOV.UK. We’ll send you a link to a feedback form. Alkhaldi and others (2017), ‘Promoting Engagement With a Digital Health Intervention (HeLP-Diabetes) Using Email and Text Message Prompts: Mixed-Methods Study’. Such interviews typically go for about 45 minutes, but this can vary. It is also a good practice to have some ground rules, such as: Olsen and others (2019), ‘Content and Feature Preferences for a Physical Activity App for Adults With Physical Disabilities: Focus Group Study’. "Focus groups aim to discover the key issues of concern for selected groups. It is important to think about which users of your digital product you want to focus on. Focus groups need facilitators. A focus group discussion isa qualitative data collection method that engages 6 to 12 people—with shared characteristics pertinent to the specific discussion topic—and is led by a trained facilitator. It is also a good method to employ prior to designing questionnaires. Beginning the Focus Group Discussion The first few moments in focus group discussion are critical. A group of 6-10 people, usually 8, meet to explore and discuss a topic, such as a new product. The focus group sessions were recorded and transcribed. The team ran focus groups with young people to find out about users’ needs to inform and recommend the development of the apps. Note that these results on user preferences might apply to people with physical disability who are active, but they might be quite different for those who are inactive. The team wanted to develop an app for people with physical disabilities to track fitness. The focus group moderator guide is your interviewing outline. Then, once the tracker is developed, you might want to recruit people with disabilities who are physically inactive to find out their experiences of the product. The Focus Group (FG) is one of the qualitative research methods to be utilized in the search for answers to such questions. guide to evaluating digital health products, use your model of how your product works to help you put together questions to guide the discussion during the focus group, ‘Content and Feature Preferences for a Physical Activity App for Adults With Physical Disabilities: Focus Group Study’, ‘Lessons Learned from Using Focus Groups to Refine Digital Interventions’, ‘Insights for conducting real-time focus groups online using a web conferencing service’, ‘Young People’s Response to Six Smartphone Apps for Anxiety and Depression: Focus Group Study’, ‘Promoting Engagement With a Digital Health Intervention (HeLP-Diabetes) Using Email and Text Message Prompts: Mixed-Methods Study’, ‘Feasibility of Synchronous Online Focus Groups of Rural Breast Cancer Survivors on Web-Based Distress Self-Management’, Define how your product works: evaluating digital health products, Rapid evaluation of digital health products during the COVID-19 pandemic, Choose evaluation methods: evaluating digital health products, Coronavirus (COVID-19): guidance and support, Transparency and freedom of information releases, you want to get a breadth of understanding of the thoughts and experiences of users, you have open-ended questions about your product, group dynamics can promote discussion, idea sharing and debate, they provide a breadth of shared experiences from people with similar characteristics, for example people experiencing similar health conditions or health professionals using your digital product, they can be used at every stage of creating a digital product, from finding out more about the needs of your users to refining and testing new content and features of your product, staff needed – you will need a facilitator who encourages discussion and possibly also a separate note-taker, it might be difficult to get the users you need together in one room at the same time, encourage participants to discuss their views openly, use prompts and questions to make sure the discussion points you are interested in are covered, venue – neutral places are best because participants will be more open in what they say, whether you will pay transport costs or give participants incentives for participating. In bridging research and policy, FGD can be useful in providing an insight into different opinions among different parties involved in the change process, thus enabling the process to be managed more smoothly. The extensively revised edition of the best-selling Focus Groups as Qualitative Research continues to provide an excellent guide for researchers across the disciplines. You can use interviews to collect qualitative data, but you can also collect some quantitative data. Focus group studies are not a time-saving alternative to interview studies. Introduction • Focus Group Discussion (FGD) involves gathering people from similar backgrounds or experiences together to discuss a specific topic of interest. Much of the success of group interviewing can be attributed to the development of this open environment. Focus groups are moderated by a group leader. Focus groups are generally used to collect data on a specific topic. The same principles apply to focus groups as to interview studies. Technology, for one, needs to be stable, consistent, and offer tools that augment qualitative researchers’ efforts and objectives. This page is part of a guide to evaluating digital health products. The focus group may also be undertaken to discover preliminary issues that are of concern to a group or community, and There are only a few basic rules to … Reflecting the many changes that have occurred in the study of focus groups in recent years, the book begins with an updated introduction offering a discussion of current social science approaches to focus groups. The guide, as its name implies, guides the interview. 552 0 obj <> endobj Focus group methods emerged in the 1940s with the work of Merton and Fiske who used focus groups to conduct audience studies. There is no set size of the group; 6 to 8 people often works well. The focus group is a method of data collection in which a moderator/facilitator (usually a coresearcher) speaks with a group of 6–12 participants about issues related to the research question. Now, FGis used intensely in the marketing field, and also, it has been growing in popularity in aother areas. In a brief time the moderator must create a thoughtful, permissive atmosphere, provide ground rules, and set the tone of the discussion. Although focus groups are commonly used in health research to explore the perspectives of patients or health care professionals, few studies consider methodological aspects in … Here, group interaction is typically encouraged (Roulston, 2010, pp. Guidelines for setting up and designing focus-group studies are outlined, ethical issues are highlighted, the purpose of a pilot study is reviewed, and common focus-group analysis and reporting styles are outlined. As Janine Waclawski and Steven Rogelberg (2002) note, it is typically led by a facilitator who asks the research questions and is assisted by a scribe who takes notes. Focus Group Discussion Guide Sample I. It is important to spend some time at the beginning of the focus group building trust and rapport. During the focus group session, the facilitator and the note-taker recorded all the fitness tracking features mentioned. For example, when developing a fitness tracker for people with physical disabilities, you might want to recruit people with disabilities who have used a tracker before in order to find out their needs and preferences. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated. A focus group is a small, but demographically similar group of people and whose reactions are studied especially in market research or political analysis in guided or open discussions about a new product or something else to determine the reactions that can be expected from a larger population. They conducted 4 groups with 15 participants. One approach is to keep recruiting participants until you are not getting any new insights from focus groups (saturation of answers). maintain confidentiality – what is said in the room stays in the room. As the name suggests, such interviews are typically conducted when it is believed that a detailed discussion is required. Group interaction and non-verbal communication are primary benefits of focus groups. endstream endobj startxref Focus Group Discussion (FGD)? � Ĩ(� �t���IqVAYP�w�������'C��ᩳ�lI;�5)?�6Vd�����\��MV?`�}8b���(�� CF��E�R�`�p�`�`�`�`� ��X They stopped at this point because they had reached saturation. Onwuegbuzie et al. Don’t worry we won’t send you spam or share your email address with anyone. Focus group discussion is frequently used as a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of social issues. t�6��w@���@�gTg`��ʰ�a3�0�������N�_|��{�0���X����1��F. The moderator typically writes the guide, which contains topics, questions, and activities for an interview. Discovering these issues can help determine which of a number of options is the preferred way forward, or to determine what are the concerns that would prevent a proposal going ahead. They should: If you have not facilitated a focus group before, it is a good idea to get someone to run it for you until you become familiar with the role. You use it during a focus group or depth interview. The method aims to obtain data from a purposely se- lected group of individuals rather than from a statistically representative sample of a This method serves to solicit participants’ attitudes and perceptions, knowledge and experiences, and Focus groups are a data collection method. A Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is a qualitative research method and data collection technique in which a selected group of people discusses a given topic or issue in-depth, facilitated by a professional, external moderator. Think about what you want to find out. Economy is an important benefit but there are other benefits of focus groups when compared to interviews. Focus groups … Focus groups can be used to get feedback before, during, or after your product is developed (formative or summative evaluations). Thus, they comprise of predetermined semi-structured interviews whereby broad questions are asked on a theme or a topic generating transcripts of discussion and opinions. If you are a student of sociology, psychology, or marketing, then you should most probably be using qualitative research methods as it gives you better insight for your study. The vast majority of commercial qualitative research involves interviews. 584 0 obj <>stream Where there is a desire to involve participants in discussion among thems… They also identified five overarching themes around intuitive and accessible design, personalisation of the app, gamification and social features. You will need to create a plan in advance of the focus group session. When conducting a focus group, four key factors must be considered: (a) the process, (b) the content, (c) group composition, and (d) data analysis. 34-35). Data is collected through a semi-structured group interview process. Focus groups are group interviews that give the researcher the ability to capture deeper information more economically than individual interviews. You use a focus group in qualitative research. Kitea and Phongsavan (2017), ‘Insights for conducting real-time focus groups online using a web conferencing service’. The goal of today’s meeting is to understand if the internal communications and news you currently receive is effective, relevant and valuable to you. Focus groups use group dynamics to get shared experiences of people with similar characteristics. To help us improve GOV.UK, we’d like to know more about your visit today. %%EOF FGDs can be used to explore the meanings of survey findings that cannot be explained statistically, the range of opinions/views on a topic of interest and to collect a wide variety of local terms. By moderating respondents, hidden opinions that could not be acquired through quantitative research can be understood. We use this information to make the website work as well as possible and improve government services. 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