They rationalize their wrong actions. Psychology: Thinking. The creative thinker does not think about the problem, but turns his attention elsewhere, or thinks of something else. He asked a four-year old boy if he had a brother; the child replied ‘yes’. This mode of conversion is usually non-verbal and is based on action or movement. Sometimes thinking involves transfer. Trial-and-error activity is a part of preparation, rather than of incubation. It investigates its hand again.”. Therefore, thinking involves representative pro­cesses. The adults decline invitation to an intellectual discussion because of lack of time when their real motive is aversion to it. Concepts. It lies midway between a concept and an image. are the combinations of concepts. The nail sank because it was too heavy; the needle because it was made of iron; the lid floated because it had edges and so on. It is ideational activity deliberately controlled by a purpose. They also are the combinations of concepts. Woodworth mentions the following steps in thinking: (b) Seeking this way and that for realizing the goal; (d) Grouping these recalled facts into new patterns; All these activities may not be present in every act of thinking. Yet, another approach to the development of thinking was outlined by Jerome S. Bruner, who like Piaget, observed the process of cognitive development or development of thinking. Psychologists as a group tend to be skeptical. Judgement is the mental process by which the mind compares two or more ideas or concepts with one another. Piaget first became interested in human adaptation when he watched his own children playing. This geometrical law is a synthesis of the concepts of ‘angle’, ‘triangle’ and ‘right angle’. Consider a simple arithmetic problem. STUDY. You may have seen small children putting everything into their mouth, their own hands, fingers toes, toys and other objects which are within their grasp. Usually, thinking is somewhat more conscious than lower-level cognitive processes, such as perception. It systematizes our knowledge. This is called transfer. Piaget then let the children test their selections in a tub of water and asked them to explain why some things floated and others sank. Gestures are enactive representations. It may be seen that most of the theorists agree on these general features. b. A memory image also is a tool of thinking. Piaget calls this single-mindedness. thinking, gaining knowledge, and dealing with that knowledge. Memory and imagination are involved in thinking. Thinking may be carried on without language. Thought is both concrete and abstract and is still influenced by inner processes – it is egocentric. The child, during this stage, learns to retrace his thoughts, correct himself, start working right from the beginning if necessary, consider more than one dimension at a time and to look at a single object or problem in different ways. It sees the impli­cations of the combination of the data and draws a new conclusion. This is judgement. The process of socialization, education, personal experiences, etc., all influence the development of thinking. The stage of omnipotence of the wish is characterised by the fact that this stage thought is highly coloured by instinctual impulses, a total absence of distinction between reality and non-reality. In this judgement the mind combines the concepts of ‘man’ and ‘mortality’ into the complex idea of ‘mortal man’ and believes in its reality. Processes of Thinking: (i) Judgement: Judgement is the mental process by which the mind compares two or more ideas or concepts with one another. The older children seemed to know what would float. We often mutter words and make inaudible speech movements, while we carry on thinking. Without this process, the other basic psychological processes would not exist, since all are strongly supported by memory. Likewise a generic image is a blurred image resulting from the superposition of many images. The child begins to use symbols or representations of events, and form images about everything he encounters. Sometimes inspiration is the last step in creative thinking. Sometimes we think of an object, but we do not recall its name. (b) We can record out thoughts in language and communicate them to others through it. (i) Thinking is a Series of Symbolic Process: (iii) Purpose of Thinking: Discovery or Invention: (iv) Hindsight and Foresight in Thinking: (iii) Is Thinking Identical with Inner-Speech. The new-born infant sucks anything which is put into his mouth, grasps anything put into his hands, and gazes at whatever crosses his line of vision. Similarly, a baby may grasp a rattle, shake it, put it into the mouth, drop it and so on. Reasoning consists in inferring a judgement from other given premises or judgements. The solution of a problem is the goal of thinking. This ability is said to develop in the next stage. Indeed, many so-called “creativity tests” are actually measures of the thought processes believed to underlie the creative act (Simonton, 2003b). The first and the earliest one is called the prototaxic mode. The following two measures are among the best known. This awareness is not present in early infancy. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY